How Leavening Agents Work
Dough is made of wheat flour, which contains a pair of proteins called gliadin and glutenin. When you add water and start to mix it, the gliadin and glutenin combine to form a new protein called gluten. Gluten molecules arrange themselves into chains that can be quite long and elastic. This elasticity is why you can take a piece of bread dough and stretch it between your fingers. The more you knead it, the stretchier it gets.
The gas produced by the leavening agent you use forms thousands of little bubbles in the dough, which causes it to inflate. Due to the dough's elasticity, the bubbles expand without bursting, so the gas remains trapped in the bubbles long enough for the third part of the reaction to take place.
The heat of the oven cooks the dough, causing it to set while those little bubbles are in their inflated state. Once the gas finally escapes, those air pockets hold their shape instead of deflating. The size of those air pockets determines the texture of your baked good. Small air pockets produce a smooth texture, like with a cake. Larger ones produce a coarser texture, like in crusty bread.
There are three main types of leavening agents: biological, chemical, and steam. Aside from them, air can also be counted as a leavening agent.
Yeast: Biological Leavening Agent
Yeast is composed of single-celled organisms (a type of fungus) that undergo an existence far removed from what we'd recognize as "life," yet they perform a vital function in cooking. Yeast is responsible for the process of fermentation, without which there would be no such things as beer, wine, or bread.
In short, in the fermentation process, the yeast eats sugar and they produce carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and alcohol. The alcohol is a boon for winemakers and brewers, and the CO2 comes in handy for bakers. CO2 also produces the bubbles in beer.
There are a few types of baker's yeasts:
In most cases, yeast doughs rise once, get punched down and then rise again. Finally, they go into the oven, where the heat rouses the yeast to one last great expulsion of CO2 before they reach 140 F and die.
- Active dry yeast is what most recipes call for. It's a dry, granular yeast sold in packets or jars. Before working with it, active dry yeast must be activated, or "proofed," by dissolving it in warm water. The ideal temperature is 105 F, cooler than that and the yeast won't fully activate, much hotter and you'll kill the yeast before it can do anything.
- Instant dry yeast is also a granular yeast sold in packets or jars. Unlike active dry yeast, however, instant dry can be mixed directly in with your flour, no proofing required. You only need to use 1/3 to 1/2 as much instant dry yeast as compared with active dry.
- Fresh yeast is found mainly in commercial bakeshops. It comes in one-pound bricks and can be added directly to the dough or dissolved in water first. Note that dissolving it is only to help disperse it more fully. It also doesn't need to prove.
Unlike the next two leavening agents, yeast contributes flavor as well. Indeed, adding more yeast to a recipe won't cause the bread to rise more, but it will produce a more intense yeast flavor.
Baking Soda and Baking Powder: Chemical Leavening Agents
Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate or bicarbonate of soda) is a white powder that comes in a box, and it has a pH level of 8 to 9, which means it is a base. When combined with an acidic ingredient, it will produce a chemical reaction that causes the release of CO2. Some of the acidic ingredients that will activate baking soda are buttermilk, lemon juice, yogurt, sour cream, molasses, and honey. If used without acid ingredients, baking soda may produce yellowing and undesirable odours and flavours in the finished product. In its dry state, baking soda is inert but once activated, it reacts immediately.
Unlike the reaction of yeast, which occurs slowly over a long period of time, baking soda acts quickly, which is why the bread and muffins it produces are called quick breads. Mixtures leavened with baking soda require quick handling to avoid release of most of the gas before baking.
Baking powder is a product consisting of baking soda plus some other acidic component, also in powder form. As long as it stays dry, it's inactive. Once moistened, the chemical reaction begins. However, it's less immediate than a straight baking soda reaction, but it's double-acting, which means it begins working when mixed and then gives off another burst of gas when heated. That's why some quick bread batters, like pancakes, can be held for a while without them losing their potency.
Modern baking powders are combinations of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) and dry acids or acid salts, usually with starch added for stability in storage. Single-acting baking powders, containing tartaric acid or cream of tartar, release carbon dioxide at room temperature, and mixtures in which they are used must be baked immediately to avoid loss of most of the gas. Slow-acting baking powders, containing phosphates, release part of their gas at room temperature and part when heated. Double-acting baking powder, the most widely used type, contains sodium aluminum sulfate and calcium acid phosphate and releases a small amount of gas when mixed and the balance when heated.
Be mindful that you cannot substitute baking soda for baking powder or vice-versa, as it won't work.
Steam: Vaporous Leavening Agent
Steam is simply water vapor, produced when the water in your dough reaches 212 F and vaporizes.
Steam is a powerful force. When water becomes steam, its volume increases by some 1,500 times. The force with which this expansion takes place is increased by higher temperatures. Puff pastry and choux pastry are two examples of pastry that use only steam as their leavening agent, and when prepared properly are superbly airy and flaky.
The key to this leavening agent is to ensure that the dough captures the steam. With puff pastry, this is done by incorporating butter into the dough and then rolling it into book folds. This technique produces hundreds of layers, which puff out into separate flaky layers as a result of the steam produced by the liquid in the dough and the water in the butter.
Choux pastry, which is used for making cream puffs, eclairs, and beignets, uses a different technique. By cooking the dough once on the stovetop, the glutens are partially denatured, which reduces the dough's elasticity. Meanwhile, the starch in the flour is gelatinized, which helps give it structure. Thus when it's baked, the steam inflates the pastry but rather than snapping back, it holds its shape and the air pockets in the center of the pastry remain intact.
Air: The Fourth Element
Leavening of baked foods with air is achieved by vigorous mixing that incorporates air bubbles, producing foam. Egg white is well suited to this purpose because it produces voluminous and strong foams that retain their expanded structure when dried by the baking process. Air-leavened bakery products avoids the flavours arising from chemical- and yeast-leavening systems. They are particularly suitable for delicately flavoured cakes. Since the batters can be kept on the acidic side of neutrality, the negative influence of chemical leaveners on fruit flavours and vanilla is avoided.